In creating an innovative nation, Malaysia has taken various steps towards promoting the national agenda to commercialise their research output at university and research centres. Universities should aggressively identify research by creating products which have commercial value. Many initiatives have been undertaken for effective collaboration between both parties to materialise; nevertheless, the subject is likely to be treated as less significant. Thus, this paper aims to discuss strategies for effective collaboration between universities and industry for the successful commercialisation of research output. For this purpose, qualitative methods in the form of interviewing eight people - academic researchers and those involved in industry – were conducted. Both parties were selected because they have experience in dealing with commercialisation activities at university level. A thematic approach analysis was used to analyse the interview data, and three themes emerged from the data. The findings suggested that the effective strategies for collaboration between universities and industry are related to the commercial value of research products, intellectual property rights aspects and commitment from both universities and industry. However, barriers that hamper collaboration between the two parties must be removed to ensure effective collaboration between universities and industry in promoting commercialisation activities.
Cited by / Share
Abdul Razak, A., Murray, P. A. (2017), Innovation strategies for successful commercialisation in public universities, International Journal of Innovation Science, 9(3), 296-314. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJIS-05-2017-0035
Ab Rahman, Z.N., Ismail, N., Rajiani, I. (2018), Challenges for managing nontechnological innovation: a case from Malaysian public sector, Polish Journal of Management Studies, 17(1), 7-16. https://doi.org/10.17512/pjms.2018.17.1.01
Abd Aziz, K., Harris, H., Norhashim, H. (2011), University research, development & commercialisation management: A Malaysian best practice case study, World Review of Business Research, 1(2), 179-192.
Agrawal, A., Henderson, R. (2002), Putting patents in context: Exploring knowledge transfer from MIT, Management Science, 48(1), 44-60. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.126.96.36.19979
Ankrah, S., Al-Tabbaa, O. (2015), University-industry collaboration: A systematic review, SSRN Electronic Journal, 31, 387-408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2015.11.027
Audretsch, D.B. (2014), From the entrepreneurial university to the university for the entrepreneurial society, The Journal of Technology Transfer, 39(3), 313-321. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10961-012-9288-1
Awasthy, Q., Flint, S., Sankarnarayana, R. (2020), A framework to improve university-industry collaboration, Journal of Industry – University Collaboration, 2(1), 49-62. https://doi.org/10.1108/JIUC-09--2019-0016
Aziati, A., Hazana, A., Ping, T. (2014), Knowledge transfer of university-industry partnership in Malaysian Technical University, Proceedings from the International Symposium on Technology Management and Emerging Technology (ISTMET), 27-29 May 2014, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, retrieved from: http://eprints.uthm.edu.my/id/eprint/5605/1/Knowledge_Transfer_of_University Industry.pdf (accessed 5 November 2020).
Barnes, T., Pashby, I., Gibbons, A. (2002), Effective university – industry interaction: a multi-case evaluation of collaborative R&D projects, European Management Journal, 20(3), 272-285. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0263-2373(02)00044-0
Boardman, P.C., Ponomariov, B.L., (2009), University researchers working with private companies, Technovation, 29, 142-153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2008.03.008
Bodas Freitas, I., Marques, R., Silva, E. (2013), University-industry collaboration and innovation in emergent and mature industries in new industrialised countries, Research Policy, 42(2), 443-453. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2012.06.006
Bourgeoise, F.T., Murthy, S., Mandl, K. D. (2020), Outcome reporting among drug trials registered in clinical trials, Annals of Internal Medicine, 153(3), 158-166. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-153-3-201008030-00006.
Cheng, H., Zhang, Z., Huang, Q., and Liao, Z., (2020), The effect of university-industry collaboration policy on universities’ knowledge innovation and achievements transformation: Based on innovation chain, The Journal of Technology Transfer, 45, 522-543. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10961-018-9653-9
Christie, A.F., D’Aloiso, S., Gaita, K., Howlett, M., Webster, E.M. (2003), Analysis of the legal framework for patent ownership in publicly funded research institutions, Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Education, Science and Training.
Čiuladienë, G., Walancik, M. (2020), Being ready to lecture a multicultural class: Asian preferences for conflict management style, Cultural Management: Science and Education, 4(1), 105-118. DOI:10.30819/cmse.4-1.06
D’Este, P., Perkmann, M. (2010), Why do academics engage with industry? The entrepreneurial university and individual motivations, The Journal of Technology Transfer, 36(3), 316-339. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10961-010-9153-z.
Diane, A.I., (2004), S&T commercialisation of federal research laboratories and University research, Carleton University Eric Sport, School of Business, Canada.
Dietz, J.S., Boseman, B. (2005), Academic careers, patents and productivity: Industry experience as scientific and technical human capital, Research Policy, 34, 349-367. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2005.01.008
Domańska, A. (2018), cooperation between knowledge-based institutions and business: Empirical studies and network theories, Forum Scientiae Oeconomia, 6(4), 81-94. https://doi.org/10.23762/FSO_VOL6_NO4_6
Draghici, A., Baban, C.F., Ivascu, L.V., Sarca, I. (2015), Key success factors for University – industry collaboration, Proceedings from 8th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, 16-18 November, Seville, Spain.
Ehrismann D., Patel, D.D. (2015), University-industry collaborations: Models, drivers and cultures, Swiss Medical Weekly, 145, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.4414/smw.2015.14086
Fernandes, G., Pinto, E., Machado, R. J., Araujo, M., Pontes, A. (2015), A program and project management approach for collaborative university-industry R&D funded contracts, Procedia Computer Science, 64, 1065-1074. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2015.08.522
Fischer, B.B., Schaeffer, P.R., Vonortas, N.S. (2019), Evolution of university-industry collaboration in Brazil from a technology upgrading perspective, Technology Forecasting and Social Change, 145, 330-340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2015.08.522
Frolund, L., Riedel, M. (Eds.) (2018), Strategic industry-university collaborations: Success-factors from innovative companies, London: Academic Press.
Garousi, V., Petersen, K., Ozkan, B. (2016), Challenges and best practices in industry-academia collaborations in software engineering: A systematic literaturę review, Information and Software Technology, 79, 106-127. DOI: 10.1016/j.infsof.2016.07.006
Gertler, M.S. (2010), Rules of game: The place of institutions in regional economic change, Regional Studies, 44(1), 1-15.DOI: 10.1080/00343400903389979
Giones, F. (2019), University-industry collaboration: An industry perspective, Management Decision, 57(12), 3258-3279. https://doi.org/10.1108/MD-11-2018-1182
Glover, L., Keiller, T. S. (2013), Intellectual property issues in college-industry partnerships, Proceedings from 120th American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition, 23-26 June 2013, Atlanta, USA.
Gorączkowska, J. (2018), Influence of business support organizations on innovation activity in manufacturing companies in the Masovian Voivodeship in Poland, Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 13(4), 741-759. https://doi.org/10.24136/eq.2018.036.
Gulbrandsen, M., Slipersćter, S. (2007), The third mission and the entrepreneurial university model, in: A. Bonaccorsi, C. Daraio (Eds.), universities and strategic knowledge creation. Specialization and performance in Europe (pp. 112-143). https://doi.org/10.4337/9781847206848.00011
Holliday, A. (2007), Doing and writing qualitative research, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Howitt, P. (2013), From curiosity to wealth creation: How university research can boost economic growth, CD Howe Institute Commentary, 383. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2303886
Ismail, N., Mohamed, K. (2016), Commercialising of innovative research product in the Malaysian public university: Challenges and ways for improvement, Research Journal of Business Management, 10(1), 1-14. http://doi.org/10.3923/rjbm.2016.1.14
Karlsson, M. (2004), Commercialization of research results in the United States: An overview of Federal and academic technology transfer, ITPS, Swedish Institute for Growth Policy Studies.
Khademi, T., Ismail, K., (2013), Commercialisation success factors of University research output, Saints Humanlike, (64)3, 137-141. DOI: 10.11113/jt.v64.2284
Kobylińska, U., Lavios, J.J. (2020), Development of research on the university entrepreneurship ecosystem: Trends and areas of interest of researchers based on a systematic review of literature, Oeconomia Copernicana, 11(1), 117-133.https://doi.org/10.24136/oc.2020.005.
Kotha, R., George, G., Srikanth, K. (2013), Bridging the mutual knowledge gap: Coordination and the commercialisation of university science, Academy of Management Journal, 56(2), 498-524. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2010.0948
King, N., Horrocks, C. (2010), Interviews in qualitative research, London: Sage.
Lewandowska, A., Stopa, M. (2018), SMEs innovativeness and institutional suport system: the local experiences in qualitative perspective. Polish case study, Oeconomia Copernicana, 9(2), 333-351. https://doi.org/10.24136/oc.2018.017.
Lewandowska, A., Stopa, M. (2019), Do SME?s innovation strategies influence their effectiveness of innovation? Some evidence from the case of Podkarpackie as peripheral region in Poland, Equilibrium.
Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 14(3), 521-536. https:// doi.org/10.24136/eq.2019.025.
Li, F., Chen, J., Su, Y. S. (2018), Managing the university-industry collaborative innovation in China, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 31(1), 62-82. https://doi.org/10.1108/JOCM-04-2017-0148
Lind, F., Styhre, A., Aaboen, L. (2013), Exploring university-industry collaboration in research centres. European Journal of Innovation Management, 16(1), 70-91. https://doi.org/10.1108/14601061311292869
Liefner, I., Si, Y. F., Schäfer, K. (2019), A latecomer firm’s R&D collaboration with advanced country universities and research institutes: The case of Huawei in Germany, Technovation, 86, 3-14. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2019.03.002
Maietta, O. W. (2015), Determinants of university- firm R&D collaboration and its impact on innovation: A perspective from a low-tech industry, Research Policy, 44(7), 1341-1359. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2015.03.006
Markman, G.D., Siegel, D.S., Wright, M. (2008), Research and technology commercialisation. Journal of Management Studies, 45(8), 1401-1423. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2008.00803.x
Miller, D.J., Acs, Z. J. (2013), Technology commercialisation on campus: twentieth century frameworks and twenty-first century blind spots, The Annals of Regional Science, 50(2), 407-423. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00168-012-0511-7
Nam, G.M., Kim, D.G., Choi, S.O. (2019), How resources of universities influence industry cooperation, Journal of Open Innovation, Technology, Market and Complexity, 5(1), 9. https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc5010009
Nicolaou, N., Birley, S. (2003), Academic networks in a trichotomous categorisation of university spinouts, Journal of Business Venturing, 18, 333-359. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(02)00118-0
OECD, (2019), University-industry collaboration: New evidence and policy options, Paris, OECD Publishing, retrieved from: https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/scienceand-technology/university-industry-collaboration_e9c1e648-en#page1 (accessed 5 October 2020).
OECD, (2013), Malaysia: Innovation profile in innovation in Southeast Asia, OECD Publishing.
Patton, M.Q. (2002), Qualitative research and evaluation methods, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Payumo, J., Gang, Z., Pulumbarit, E., Jones, K., Meredia, K., Grimes, H. (2012), Managing intellectual property and technology commercialisation: Comparison and analysis of practices, success stories and lessons learned from public research universities in developing Asia, Innovation Management, Policy and Practice, 1(4), 478-494. https://doi.org/10.5172/impp.2012.14.4.478
Perez, M., Sanchez, A.M. (2003), The development of university spin-offs: Early dynamics of technology transfer and networking, Technovation, 23, 823-831. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4972(02)00034-2
Perkman, M., Tartari, V., McKelvey, M., Autio E., Brostrom, A., D’Este, P., Fini, R., Geuna, A., Grimaldi, R., Hughes, A., Krabel., S., Kitson, M., Llerena, P., Lissoni, F., Salter, A., Sobreno, M. (2013), Academic engagement and commercialisation: A review of literature on university- industry relations, Research Policy, 42(2), 423-442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2012.09.007
Pertuze, J. A., Greitzer, E. M., Calder, E. S., Lucas, W. A. (2010), Best practices for industry-university collaboration, MIT Sloan Management Review, 51(4), 83-90.
Powers, J., McDougall, P. (2005), University start up formation and technology licensing with firms that go public: A resource based view of academic entrepreneurship, Journal of Business Venturing,
, 291-311. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2003.12.008.
Purcarae, I., Espinosa, M.M.B., Apetrei, A. (2013), Innovation and knowledge creation: Perspectives on the SMEs sector, Management Decision, 51(5), 1096-1107.DOI: 10.1108/MD-08-2012-0590
Ramli, N., Zainol, Z., Aziz, J., Hassim, J., Hussein, M., Dahalan, W.R., Yaakob, N. (2013), The concept of research university: The Implementation in the context of Malaysian university system, Asian Social Science, 9(5), 307-317. DOI: 10.5539/ass.v9n5p307
Rajiani, I., Ismail, N. (2019), Management innovation in balancing technology innovation to harness universities performance in the era of community 4.0, Polish Journal of Management Studies, 19, 309-321.https://doi.org/10.17512/pjms.2019.19.1.24.
Ramli, N., Zainol, Z. (2013), University-industry collaboration: A catalyst towards entrepreneurial university, Proceedings from the 8th National Conference on Malaysian Economic, 7-9 June 2013, Johor Baru, Malaysia, retrieved from: https://www.ukm.my/fep/perkem/contents/perkem2013.html (accessed 24 June 2020).
Rast, S., Khabiria, N., Senin, A. (2012), Evaluation framework for assessing university-industry collaborative research and technological initiative, Procedia - Social Behavioural Sciences, 40, 410-416. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.03.208
San, C.L., Narayanasamy, P., Dahlan, A. R.A. (2012), Commercialisation of bioinformatics and biotechnology products in Malaysia: An overview, International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences, 1(2), 197-216.
Scandura, A. (2016), University–industry collaboration and firms’ R&D effort, Research Policy, 45(9), 1907-1922. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2016.06.009
Schafer, A.I., Richards, B.S. (2007), From concept to commercialisation: Student learning in a sustainable engineering innovation project, European Journal of Engineering Education, 32(2), 143-165. https://doi.org/10.1080/03043790601118689
Schulze-Krogh, A.C., Calignano, G. (2019), How do firms perceive interactions with researchers in small innovation projects? Advantages and barriers for satisfactory collaborations, Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13132-019-0581-1
Shi, X., Wu, Y., Fu, D. (2020), Does university- industry collaboration improve innovation efficiency? Evidence from Chinese firms, Economic Modelling, 86, 39-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2019.05.004
Siegal, D.S., Wright, M. (2007), Intellectual property: The assessment, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 23(4), 529-540.https://doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/grm033
Sivertsen, G., Meijer, I. (2020), Normal versus extraordinary societal impact: How to understand, evaluate, and improve research activities in their relations to society?, Research Evaluation, 29(1), 66-70.https://doi.org/10.1093/reseval/rvz032
Tseng, F.C., Huang, M.H., Chen, D.Z. (2020), Factors of university-industry collaboration affecting university innovation performance, The Journal of Technology Transfer, 45, 560-577. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10961-018-9656-6
Yusuf, S. (2006). University-industry links policy dimensions, in: S. Yusuf, K. Nabeshima (Eds), How universities promote economic growth, Washington, DC: World Bank Publication.
Van Der Steen, M., Enders, J. (2008), Universities in evolutionary systems of innovation, Creativity & innovation Management, 17(4), 281-292. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8691.2008.00496.x
West, J., Bogers, M. (2013), Leveraging external sources of innovation: A review of research on open innovation, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 31(4), 814-831. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpim.12125
Wróblewski, Ł. (2020), Building the relationship between cultural institutions and citizens of a small city divided by the border, Cultural Management: Science and Education, 4(1), 119-128. DOI:10.30819/cmse.4-1.07
Norain Ismail is currently an Associate Professor at the Technology Management Department, Faculty of Technology Management and Technopreneurship, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka. She holds a degree and a Master’s in law from the International Islamic University Malaysia. Professor Norain was also conferred a Doctor of Philosophy in law from Newcastle University, United Kingdom. Her main research interests include intellectual property law, aspects of technology and intellectual property and commercialisation.
Sebastian Kot is currently a Professor in management and supply chain management at the Faculty of Management, Czestochowa University of Technology. He has over 20 years of teaching, research and managerial experience in higher education. He is an Extraordinary Professor at the School of Economic Sciences at the North-West University and University of Johannesburg, South Africa. He is a founder and co-editor of the Polish Journal of Management Studies.
Ahmad Shamsul Abd Aziz is a senior lecturer at the School of Law, UUM-COLGIS, Universiti Utara Malaysia. He started his career as a lecturer at Universiti Utara Malaysia in 2001. He holds the following degrees: a Bachelor of Laws with Honors (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia) in 1998, a Master of Law (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia) in 2001 and a Doctor of Philosophy (Universiti Utara Malaysia) in 2017. He also earned a professional certificate of intellectual property management from the Malaysian Institute of Management (MIM) in 2008. His areas of specialisation or interest are intellectual property law, cyber law and media law.
Ismi Rajiani is currently an Assistant Professor of Management at the University of Lambung Mangkurat Banjarmasin, Indonesia. Previously, he had been employed at Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka. He has been awarded grants on sustainability issues from the Malaysian and German Ministries of Higher Education. Professor Rajiani has authored and co-authored several articles published in reputable journals including Sustainability (Switzerland), the Polish Journal of Management Studies (Poland), and Acta Montanistica Slovaca (Slovakia).